Propagation is usually understood to mean the process by which humans instigate and control plant growth of new plants by seed or vegetative means, ie instigating reproduction of plants.
Plants reproduce themselves by seed and vegetative means. Propagation describes the methods by which humans reproduce plant material for their benefit.
Propagation may be by seeds or vegetative methods.
Seed propagation could be sowing seeds in a seed tray in the greenhouse or direct sowing outside in a seed bed or where the seeds are to grow.
Vegetative means of propagation include: –
The propagation techniques may involve all or any parts of the plant, ie stems, roots, leaves, buds and bulbs.